Photovoltaic solar panels
Photovoltaic modules use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Most modules use water-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can be either the top layer or the back layer. Cells must be protected from mechanical damage and moisture.
Most modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones based on thin-film cells are also available. The cells are connected electrically in series, one to another to a desired voltage, and then in parallel to increase amperage. The wattage of the module is the mathematical product of the voltage and the amperage of the module.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate direct current electricity. A photovoltaic module is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic solar cells available in different voltages and wattages. Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications. The most common application of solar energy collection outside agriculture is solar water heating systems.